Fall 2000


Antennas: How High And How Many?

The unique topography and location of the Palos Verdes Peninsula creates many opportunities and constraints on the ability of residents to receive television, radio and other non-commercial broadcasts and transmissions. Even in these days of digital cable television and high-speed Internet access, many homeowners may still need to use some type of antenna to capture these signals.

The City's Development Code includes an extensive discussion (Section 17.76.020) of the requirements for all types of commercial and non-commercial antennas. In residential neighborhoods, there are many types of non-commercial antennas that do not require a City permit:

  • Satellite Dish Antennas: Satellite dishes with a diameter of 1 meter or less do not require City permits as long as they are 12 feet or less above ground (if ground-mounted on a pole) or 12 feet above the point of attachment to the roof (if attached to the house). These are the types of dishes commonly used by satellite television services such as DirecTV. Only one exempt satellite dish antenna is permitted for each residential lot.

  • Television and FM Radio Antennas: Up to two television or FM radio antennas are permitted for each residential lot without a City permit as long as they are 12 feet or less above the point of attachment to the roof.

  • Amateur Radio (Ham) Antennas: There are several categories of ham radio antenna assemblies that are exempt from City permits: 1) antenna assemblies up to 16 feet tall and not located in any required setback area; 2) building-mounted antenna assemblies that are no more than 12 feet tall (as measured from the point of attachment to the roof) and with radiating elements no more than 6 feet long; 3) wire antenna assemblies consisting of a single wire up to one-half inch diameter, suspended between two supports up to 41 feet in height; and 4) vertical antenna assemblies consisting of a single pole or mast with a maximum 3-inch diameter, a maximum height of 41 feet, no guy lines or horizontal elements located higher than 2 feet above the ridgeline of the house; and, not located in any required setback area. Up to two exempt ham radio antenna assemblies are permitted for each residential lot.

Other types of antennas not described above require a City permit. For more information regarding permits for non-exempt antennas, contact the Planning Division at (310) 544-5228. You can also review Section 17.76.020 of the Development Code on the City's website at http://www.palosverdes.com/rpv.


TAKE A HIKE WITH THE DOCENTS AT OCEAN TRAILS


The Los Serenos de Point Vicente docents started conducting guided tours of the Ocean Trails Project in August. These tours begin at the public parking lot located at the end of La Rotonda Drive, just off Palos Verdes Drive South. The hikes are on paved, gently sloping trails along the bluff edge and through the habitat corridor. Docents will provide information about the history, geology, marine ecology and habitat restoration work done at Ocean Trails.

The tours last about two hours and participants are advised to wear a hat, comfortable shoes, and to bring a small bottle of water. No reservations are required and there is no charge.

Tours are scheduled as follows: September 21 @ 9:00 a.m.; September 24 @ 4:00 p.m.; October 26 @ 9:00 a.m.; October 29 @ 3:00 p.m.; November 16 @ 9:00 a.m.; and, November 19 @ 3:00 p.m.


RANCHO PALOS VERDES THANKS OUR JULY 4TH

INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATION DONORS

PLATINUM PATRONS

Technomarketing Waste Management, Inc.

Coach USA/California Charter

GOLD STAR SPONSORS

Rolling Hills Riviera Homeowner Association

STAR SUPPORTERS

The Admiral Risty Bay Cities National Bank Granvia Mobil SA Associates

Highridge Hand Car Wash Trader Joe's Western Ave.

La Cresta HOA Rockinghorse Comm. Assoc.

Marie Callender's Western Ave. Palos Verdes Bay Club, Inc.

Calif. Water Service RDS Wire & Cable, Inc.

Dawn & Robert Henry Eastview Townhouse Owners Zdonek & Wolowicz Accountancy Corp.

DeLong & Assoc. Telecom Consultants

Maureen & Patrick Ford, Karastan Rug Mills

Ronald Moran Cadillac

SUPPORTERS

Palos Verdes Bowl Long's Drug

Small Wonders Miraleste Hills HOA

Domino's Pizza Western Ave.

Armstrong Garden Center The Avenue 13 Regal Cinemas


West Nile Virus

You may have heard or read recently about the introduction of the West Nile encephalitis virus in the United States. Although not yet in the California, the virus has been found in New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut. The virus is believed to have originated in Africa and is also found in West Asia and the Middle East. The virus is closely related to the St. Louis encephalitis virus found in the United States. It is not know how long the West Nile virus has been in this country, but scientists at the Center for Disease Control believe that it has probably been in the eastern United States since the early summer of 1999, and possibly longer. Prior to that time, West Nile virus had never been reported in the United States. Last year, 62 cases of severe disease, including 7 deaths, occurred in the New York City area. No reliable estimates are available for the number of cases of West Nile encephalitis that occur worldwide.

The virus is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito infected with the virus. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds, and after an incubation period of 10 days to 2 weeks, these mosquitoes can then transmit West Nile virus to humans and animals while biting to take blood. After infection, the virus multiplies in the blood stream and crosses the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain. The virus interferes with the central nervous system and causes inflammation of the brain tissue (encephalitis).

West Nile virus is NOT transmitted from person to person. For example, you cannot get the virus from touching or kissing a person who has the disease or from a health care worker who has treated someone with the disease. Similarly, there are also no known cases of animal to person transmission of the virus.

Typically, an infected person will experience symptoms of the disease within 3 to 15 days after being bitten by a mosquito. Most infections are mild and symptoms include fever, headache and body aches, often with skin rash and swollen lymph glands. More severe infections may be marked by headache, high fever, stiffness, stupor, disorientation, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, paralysis, coma and rarely, death. Fatalities range from 3% to 15% with the highest rates among the elderly.

Currently there is no vaccine or specific treatment for the West Nile virus. In more severe cases, treatment requires intensive supportive therapy, such as hospitalization, intravenous fluids, respiratory support, the prevention of secondary infections (pneumonia, urinary tract, etc.) and good nursing care.

In the New York area epidemic, a total of 18 native bird species had high mortality rates as a result of the virus. However, there was a particularly large die-off of American crows and they appear to be the bird species that is the most susceptible to the virus. Therefore, the crow is being used as a surveillance tool to monitor the possible movement of the West Nile virus into California and other states.

Crows and other wild birds have a normal die-off rate associated with their normal life cycle. However, if the local bird population becomes infected with the West Nile virus, the death rate will dramatically increase to 5 to 10 times what is normally observed. There is no evidence that a person can get the virus from handling live or dead infected birds. However, avoid barehanded contact with all dead animals, including dead birds. It is a good idea to use gloves or double plastic bags to handle and dispose of the carcass.

It is too early to speculate about the permanent establishment of West Nile virus in the United States. Continued surveillance will assist scientists and government officials in answering this question. In the meantime, please report an unusual change in the number of wild crow or wild bird deaths to Robert Saviskas at the Los Angeles County West Vector Control District, (310) 915-7370 ext. 223 or e-mail to rsaviskas@lawestvector.org.


SPECIAL DISCOUNTS FOR LOW INCOME RESIDENTS

Are you a senior or single parent whose money seems to run out before all of the monthly bills are paid? You may qualify for low income benefits if your annual gross income meets the following criteria:

Number of Persons in Household

1-2

3

4

5

For each additional person

Annual Gross Income

$18,200

$21,500

$25,800

$30,100

$4,300

These are some of the discounts or exemptions available to you:

  • Exemption from the City's 3% Utility User Tax. Call RPV Finance Department 310-377-0360.
  • Interest free loans and grants through the City's Block Grant Program for Home Repairs and Improvements. Call RPV Public Works Department 310- 544-5252.
  • 15% discount on utility bills from the Gas Company. Call the Gas Company 1-800-427-2200.
  • Reduced refuse and recycling bill (pick ups will be reduced to once a week). Call Waste Management at 310-830-7100, or Ivy Rubbish at 310-530-2899.
  • Basic phone service at half price from Pacific Bell. Call customer service at 1-800-310-2355. For information about GTE's low cost Lifeline service call 1-800-483-4000.
  • Other utilities may also offer you discounts. Call their customer service departments.

How do you calculate your annual gross income? It is income from various sources such as salaries, child support, social security, disability payments, pension payments, and interest.


Ho! Ho! Ho!

To "Breakfast with Santa" We Go

Mark your calendars for Saturday, December 16th for

some old-fashioned holiday fun with Santa.

Breakfast, crafts, carols and pictures with Santa await children of all ages at Hesse Park from 9:00am to 10:30am. Bring your camera!

Children & Adults, $6 each. Registration forms at Hesse Park. Call the North Pole at 541-8114 for more information. All proceeds benefit the RPV REACH Program for young adults with developmental disabilities.

Hop on your sleigh! Santa's on his way!


EXPANDED

PLANNING, BUILDING AND CODE ENFORCEMENT

OFFICE HOURS

The Rancho Palos Verdes Planning, Building and Code Enforcement Department expanded the hours of public service beginning July 10. The new public service hours are as follows:

Monday - Friday: 7:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.

Friday: 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.

We hope that these expanded hours will enhance the Department's service to the City's residents and clients.


Help us REACH New Members

Programs for Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

This program is designed to serve the social and recreational needs of youth and young adults who have developmental disabilities. The name "REACH" was chosen because it signifies the program's primary objective--to provide a safe and encouraging environment for participants to challenge themselves and achieve more in life. This popular program is conducted by the City's Parks & Recreation Department and has been serving Peninsula and South Bay youth for over twenty years.

Each year REACH offers over 100 challenging and diverse activities that promote social interaction, physical fitness, independent living, and community access and assimilation. Programs include camps, dances, weekend trips, special events, and art and music therapy. Activities are generally held on Monday and Wednesday evenings and on weekends.

Our motivated, creative, and friendly staff maintains a 7 to 1 participant to staff ratio. REACH members must be non-violent, ambulatory, be able to feed themselves and taker care of their personal needs. There are no monthly or annual fees; participants sign up for events that fit into their schedules. The total cost for most activities is between $5 and $25.

If you are between the ages of 10 and 35 with developmental disabilities or if you know someone who would benefit from this program, contact REACH Coordinator Matt Waters at (310) 544-5266 for more information.


Airplane Noise Update

On August 15 th , the FAA began routing turboprop flights headed southbound to Palomar and San Diego around the Palos Verdes Peninsula approximately one mile offshore. The Air Transport Association and the Regional Airline Association voluntarily agreed to this new procedure. The FAA anticipates a reduction of approximately 50% in the turboprop aircraft overflights.

The City continues to advocate residents' concerns at both the regional and federal level about the problem of aircraft noise and overflights. In mid-September, Los Angeles World Airports invited City officials to discuss establishing a new forum with representatives from the FAA, the airline industry, and LAX to enhance communication between agencies on aircraft noise issues. For more information, please contact Los Angeles World Airports at 310-646-9640.

Recently, the Cities of Rancho Palos Verdes, Hermosa Beach and Redondo Beach agreed to jointly purchase a flight radar system that will track aircraft departing Los Angeles International Airport and flying over the beach cities and the Peninsula. The Cities' elected officials envision using the flight data as irrefutable evidence of air traffic violations for potential litigation against the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The Cities anticipate the radar tracking system will be installed and operating before the end of this year.

The FAA is in the process of revising its 1976 Aviation Noise Abatement Policy. The complete proposed policy is available online from the Federal Register at www.access.gpo.gov or visit the P.A.N.I.C (Peninsula Aircraft Noise Information/Safety Committee) website at http://www.palosverdes.com/panic/Noisereg.htm. Public comments may be addressed to the FAA by October 23, 2000. Details on how to submit comments are provided on either website.

To report your complaint of excessive aircraft noise, call the FAA at 310-725-3638, LAX at 310-646-6473 or Gina Park at City Hall at 310-544-5206.


Subscribe To the City's E-Mail List

Logon to RPV's New Web Site

Would you like to receive an email to inform you when the City Council will discuss an item that interests you? Would you like to receive an email informing you about roadwork in the City? If you answer yes to these questions, then go to the City's web site at www.palosverdes.com/rpv and join the City Email Subscription List. Once you are on that list you will receive email messages about subjects that you have a specific interest in hearing about. This email system will be used to post notices about public hearings, City Council and Planning Commission agenda items and City events of interest to you.

With the help of Palos Verdes on the Net, the City has overhauled its web site. Visit it at www.palosverdes.com. Features have been added to make your virtual connection with City Hall easier, more informative and useful. For example, the site has streaming video of public service announcements. Just recently the City's video on "Preserving the Peninsula" was put on line. This video details the revegetation and rehabitation of certain areas of our coastline. A description and pictures of proposed and ongoing development projects and the City's own improvement projects are a click away.

Here's a sample of the information now at your fingertips:

  • City Council and Planning Commission agendas
  • Business License application
  • Location and information about City parks
  • The Municipal Code
  • Utility company phone numbers and website links
  • L. A. County Sheriff and Fire Department phone numbers and website links
  • Email links to the City Council and City staff
  • "What's New in RPV"
  • "Breaking News" for real time posting of emergency information
  • A picture tour of the City provided by Mary Donovan
  • Permit fee schedules
  • Links to sixty federal, state and local government web sites

The City's website provides access and information about your City government. Visit the site and give us your comments.


Move over Killer Bees, The Red Fire Ants Are Here

Last year we notified residents about the Africanized Honeybee or killer bee, this year we have to report on another pest--the Red Imported Fire Ant. Although normally found in southern states, red fire ants have now been found in several areas in Los Angeles County. These ants are aggressive and can inflict painful, multiple stings to humans and pets as well as damage electrical lines, plants and agricultural crops.

Red ants build mounds of soft soil that can measure up to three feet in diameter and 18 inches in height. The mounds look very similar to those made by gophers. If a mound is disturbed, the ants will emerge and aggressively start stinging. Each mound can contain up to 500,000 worker ants and several hundred winged ants and queens. Fire ants are red/brown in color with black abdomens and are about a quarter of an inch long. Harvester ants are much larger and make large bare areas with a single entrance hole to the colony. Leaf cutter ants are also much larger and do not have a distinctive built-up mound, but do have many entrance holes over a very large area.

Where They Infest

Fire ants build mounds in almost any type of soil, but prefer open, sunny areas such as lawns, schoolyards, golf courses, parks and cultivated fields. They also form colonies close to homes and other buildings and sometimes forage indoors for food and moisture, particularly during the hot, dry summer months. Entire colonies occasionally nest in wall voids or rafters, sometimes moving into buildings during floods.

Occasionally they feed on vegetable plants in home gardens. The worst damage usually occurs during hot, dry weather. They can also be a nuisance to gardeners during weeding and harvesting and can invade compost piles and mulched flowerbeds seeking warmth and moisture. Cracked pavement and sidewalks are another common site for infestation.

Frequently they infest electrical equipment and chew on insulation causing short circuits and interfering with switching mechanisms. They can also damage air conditioners, traffic signal boxes and other devices. These ants also nest in electrical box housing and utility units.

Around Bodies of Water

Because they require water to survive, fire ants are often found near creeks, run-off ditches, streams, rivers, ponds, lakes and other bodies of water. If surface water is unavailable, they may tunnel down to the ground water table many feet below ground.

What Can You Do?

  • Immediately report any suspected fire ant mounds to the California Department of Food and Agriculture's Pest Hotline at 1-800-491-1899.
  • Educate children about the fire ant and its potential hazards.
  • Fire ant allergic individuals should wear closed-toed shoes, socks and gloves when gardening, and take other precautions to avoid stings.
  • Do not enclose or tie pets near fire ant mounds.
  • Pouring one to two gallons of hot tap water into the mound can destroy individual ant mounds. If enough hot water reaches the queen, it will destroy her and eventually the colony. Hot water treatments, however, are not always one hundred percent effective.
  • Other materials used to combat them can be obtained from your local nursery or gardening supply store. Some commonly available combatants are applied as a liquid drench over the mound or as granule baits containing insect growth regulators.
  • Work with your neighbors to schedule fire ant abatements because destroying mounds on your property only will not stop re-infestation from surrounding untreated properties.
  • To stop their spread, avoid moving soil or potted plants from your property. Fire ants may also be present in firewood stacks, lumber, tires and many other items that may be stored on your property. Any item infested with these ants should not be moved to other areas.

Health Concerns

Fire ants are very aggressive and will repeatedly sting anything that disturbs them. Symptoms of a sting include burning and itching which usually subsides in an hour. Within the next four hours, however, a small blister forms at the site of each sting. White pustules generally form two days later. Treatment is aimed at preventing secondary bacterial infection, which can occur if the pustule is scratched or broken. Although the stings are not usually life threatening, they are easily infected. On rare occasions, anaphylaxis - or a generalized, systemic allergic reaction to the fire ant stings - can occur and may be life threatening. It usually occurs in persons sensitized by a previous sting. It may be manifested by flushing, general hives, swelling of the face, eyes and throat, chest pains, nausea, severe sweating, loss of breath or slurred speech. If this occurs, the person should immediately seek emergency medical attention.

To treat fire ant stings, elevate the extremity and apply ice or a cold compress to reduce swelling and relieve pain. Clean blisters with soap and water to prevent secondary infection. Do not break the blister. Topical steroid ointments and oral antihistamines may relieve the itching associated with these reactions in severe cases.

For more information on the Red Imported Fire Ant visit the California Department of Food and Agriculture's website at www.cdfa.ca.gov or call CDFA Public Affairs at (916) 654-0462.

If you are interested in information about the Africanized Honeybee, you can call the Los Angeles County West Vector Control District at (310) 915-7370 or visit their website at www.lawestvector.org.


Back by Popular Demand: Composting Workshop

Save The Planet In Your Own Backyard

The City will host another free composting workshop on Saturday, October 28 in the Multi-Purpose Room at Hesse Park. The workshop will start at 10 a.m. and will run until 12 noon. Learn how to compost and get more information about the City's composting rebate program which enables City residents to get a full rebate of up to $70 on the purchase of a composting bin. Proof of residency and an itemized receipt is required. For more information on this workshop and rebate program, contact the Public Works Department at (310) 544-5252.


TAKE CARE OF YOUR DOG

Even if your dog is licensed, it is not permissible to let him run loose through your neighborhood or through City parks. (County Code 10.32.010).

Be a responsible pet owner and don't allow your dog to disturb the peace with excessive barking (RPV MC 6.04.060).


PENINSULA TRANSIT GUIDE

Serving the three Peninsula Cities of Rancho Palos Verdes, Rolling Hills Estates and Palos Verdes Estates

PV TRANSIT

DIAL A RIDE

  • Five fixed routes with regular stops throughout three Peninsula Cities served.
  • Operating:
    Monday - Friday
    6:30 a.m. - 6:30 p.m.

    • 30-minute service
      6:30 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. and
      1:30 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.

    • 60-minute service
      9:00 a.m. - 1:30 p.m. and
      4:00 p.m. - 6:30 p.m.

  • Fares: One-Way - $2.00
    Monthly Pass - $50.00
    Semester Pass - $200.00
  • Cash, tokens and passes accepted.
  • Tokens and monthly passes available at City Halls and various school locations.
  • Semester passes available only through the Transit Authority office: 38 Crest Road West.
  • Route timetables available at the Transit Authority Office, public library and at City Halls.
  • Serving Disabled and Senior Population
  • 24 Hours a day, 7 days a week on the Peninsula and to designated medical facilities off the Peninsula.
  • Pre-registration required-$5/July-Dec and $10/Jan-June
  • Vouchers $4.00. Cash is not accepted!! Limit 24 vouchers per month per person
  • For trips "on the Peninsula":
    One voucher each way
    For trips "off the Peninsula":
    Two vouchers needed to the approved facility and two for the return trip home
  • Vouchers available by mail order at Transit Authority 38 Crest Road West, Rolling Hills, CA 90274 or call Peninsula Seniors at 377-3003

RECREATION CLASSES OFFERED AT CITY PARKS

Privatized recreation classes for Fall 2000 will be held at City parks. Anyone interested in attending these classes may pick up registration information at Hesse Park, or call any of the following instructors.

Cherie Ackerman (310) 547-5073 Tap and Children's Combo Dance (4 years - Adult)

Miwa Aiba (310) 371-5330 NEW! Love Yourself, Heal Your Life (Adult)

Vi Ballard (310) 373-9740 Mommy & Me (Birth to Crawling)
Parenting Skills for New Parents (Birth to 1 year)

Ann Bosma (310) 375-2064 Aerobic Dancing: Lite Impact (Adult)

Herb Clarkson (310) 377-6342 Amateur Radio for the Novice (Teen, Adult)

Jacquelyn Fernandez (310) 377-2965 Exercise & Dance Fitness (Adult)

Richard Goodman (310) 548-3207 Tai Chi Chuan (Adult)

Kaplan Education Center (800) 527-8378 SAT Test Preparation (Grades 10-12)

Karin Koralek (310) 374-6612 Yoga (Adult)
Reawaken your Spirit - Yoga Workshop (FREE)

Jau-Ching Lai (310) 377-0165 NEW! Kindermusik (18 mo.-3 years, 3-5 years, 5-7years)

Sean McRoberts (310) 848-0989 Tennis -Beg./Int./Adv. (7 years-Adult)
Pee Wee Tennis (4-6 years)

Michele (310) 544-1930 French for Conversation, Business and Travel (Youth, Teen, Adult)

Jeanne Murphy (310) 377-8507 Ladies Exercise (Adult)

Sachiye Nakano (310) 544-1624 Bones for Life (Adult)
Body Kinetics (Adult)

Christina Ross (310) 377-3927 Movement for Health (Adult)

Barry Sacks (310) 519-4622 Mommy & Me (18 - 30 months)
Wee Tots (2 - 4 years)
Outdoor Adventures (5-10 years)

Suika Education, Inc. (310) 323-5221 Suika Baby Club (Birth -3 years)

Carla Walker (310) 521-9471 Tennis for Youth (2-10 years)

If you are interested in teaching at any of the City parks, call the Recreation Program Supervisor at (310) 544-5267.


Holiday Trash Schedule

Don't forget to put the trash out and make sure that all containers are left at the curb by 7 a.m. on collection day.

If you are a senior 65 years or older, contact your waste hauler and apply for a senior citizen discount.

Waste Management

If one recycling container isn't enough for all of your recyclables (paper, newspaper, cans, bottles, glass, junk mail and cardboard), call your waste hauler and ask for an additional blue container-it's free. Remember, recyclables are picked up on the first collection day of the week; green waste is picked up on the second collection day of the week. Do your part and participate in the City's recycle program.

October: No Changes

November: There are no changes on Monday and Tuesday, November 20 and 21. There will be no trash or green waste pick up on Thursday, November 23, Thanksgiving Day. Trash and green waste scheduled for pick up on that date will instead be picked up on Friday, November 24; Friday's trash and green waste will be picked up on Saturday, November 25.

December: There will be no trash pick up on Monday, December 25, Christmas Day. Trash and recyclables scheduled for pick up on that date will instead be picked up on Tuesday, December 26. Tuesday's trash and recyclables will be picked up on Wednesday, December 27. There will be no change in the Thursday and Friday collections.

January: There will be no trash pick up on Monday, January 1, New Year's Day. Trash and recyclables scheduled for pick up on that date will instead be picked up on Tuesday, January 2, 2001. Tuesday's trash and recyclables will be picked up on Wednesday, January 3. There will be no change in the Thursday and Friday collections.

Ivy Rubbish Disposal

October: No Changes

November: Trash will be picked up on Thursday, November 25, Thanksgiving day. Recycling scheduled for pick up on Thursday will instead be picked up earlier that week on the Monday, November 20.

December: There will be no service on Monday, December 25, Christmas Day. Trash and recycling scheduled for pick up on that day will instead be picked up on Thursday, December 28.

January: No Changes for New Year's Day.


RPV CITY PARK HOURS

Abalone Cove Shoreline Park

Mon. - Fri. 12:00 noon - 4:00p.m.

Sat. & Sun. 9:00a.m. - 4:00p.m.

Fred Hesse Community Park

Mon. - Fri. 9:00a.m. - dusk

Sat. & Sun. 10:00a.m. - dusk

Ladera Linda Community Center

Mon., Wed., Fri. 1:00p.m. - 5:00p.m.

Sat. & Sun. 1:00p.m. - 5:00p.m.

Point Vicente Interpretive Center

Temporarily Closed

Robert E. Ryan Community Park

Mon. - Fri. 12:00 noon - dusk

Sat. & Sun. 10:00a.m. - dusk

All parks in the City may be enjoyed by the public from dawn to dusk.

The leash law is enforced at all City parks.


Fall 2000 Contributing Writers:

Carolynn Petru, Gina Park, Phyllis Butts, Nancie Silver, Holly Starr, Matt Waters, Les Evans, Kit Fox, David Snow, Dennis McLean and Lauren Ramezani.